Mengenai Saya

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Juwana Pati, Central Java, Indonesia
I am an English teacher in SMA Negeri 1 Pati. I am a father of two children Wanindyatami Firstidi Putri and Satriya Pinandhita Seconditya Putra. I am a husband of Triyanti. I live in Doropayung village Rt 7 RW. 3.I am a dreamer cause I believe if I can dream someday my dream will come true.

Kamis, 16 Agustus 2007

Pronoun

What is a Pronoun?
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.
Subjective Personal Pronouns
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
It is on the counter.
Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?
Objective Personal Pronouns
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:
Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with."
After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.
The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw".
The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our leader will address you in five minutes."
In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address."
Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.
Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet."
Give the list to me.
Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to".
I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.
Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to".
Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.
Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."
Possessive Personal Pronouns
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:
The smallest gift is mine.
Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement.
This is yours.
Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement.
His is on the kitchen counter.
In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence.
Ours is the green one on the corner.
Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.
Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.
The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:
This must not continue.
Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."
This is puny; that is the tree I want.
In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.
Three customers wanted these.
Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted".
Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.
"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.
The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:
Which wants to see the dentist first?
"Which" is the subject of the sentence.
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.
Whom do you think we should invite?
In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."
To whom do you wish to speak?
Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."
Who will meet the delegates at the train station?
In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet".
To whom did you give the paper?
In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to."
What did she say?
Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."
Relative Pronouns
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.
You may invite whomever you like to the party.
The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite".
The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.
In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."
In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.
In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."
Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.
Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke".
The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.
In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."
I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.
Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."
Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:
Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.
Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited".
The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.
In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown."
We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.
In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."
Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.
Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found."
Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.
In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."
Give a registration package to each.
Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."
Reflexive Pronouns
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.
The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:
Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.
Intensive Pronouns
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.

3 komentar:

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    BalasHapus
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  3. English Online > Professional > A Handbook for Teachers > Word Class: Pronouns

    Exploring Language
    Word Class: Pronouns

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This is a closed word class.
    A pronoun is a kind of noun.

    Traditionally, a pronoun was said to be a word that stood for a noun, from the Latin pro, meaning "for" or "in place of". (Strictly speaking, a pronoun stands for a noun phrase - more about them later.)

    Peter thought about Peter's mother a great deal. Peter remembered the first time Peter's mother took Peter to town, how Peter's mother took Peter's hand and helped Peter across the road. Whenever Peter and Peter's mother went to town, Peter's mother always bought Peter a Boston bun because Peter's mother knew how much Peter liked Boston buns.
    Peter thought about his mother a great deal. He remembered the first time she took him to town, how she took his hand and helped him across the road. Whenever they went to town, she always bought him a Boston bun because she knew how much he liked them.



    The examples in the second passage above are called personal pronouns.

    The term first person refers to the speaker (or speakers).

    The term second person is the person (or persons) being addressed.

    The term third person is what is being spoken about (whether singular or plural, person or thing).


    Personal Pronouns
    Subject Object
    First person
    singular I me
    plural we us
    Second person
    singular and plural you you
    Third person
    singular masculine he him
    feminine she her
    non-personal it it
    plural they them


    Some Differences between Nouns and Pronouns
    Pronouns belong to a closed word class.

    There are very few of them (about sixty) compared with thousands of nouns.

    Nouns are in the same form whether they are the subject or the object of a sentence.

    The hunter killed the tiger.
    The tiger killed the hunter.

    Personal pronouns have different forms for subject and object.

    I (subject) saw him. (object)
    We (subject) saw them. (object)
    When children are learning to talk, pronouns can be quite troublesome because they cannot simply be imitated like other nouns.

    I am going to brush your hair.
    If a child wants to repeat the identical information, she cannot merely imitate the sentence but must say:

    You are going to brush my hair.

    It seems that adults instinctively avoid this difficulty by using proper nouns instead of pronouns when they talk to little children:

    Mummy is going to brush Michelle's hair.




    In the third person singular, the personal pronoun must indicate gender.

    In English, if you use nouns, you do not need to specify the gender of the person being spoken about. Once you use a pronoun, you must specify the gender of the person referred to.
    I visited my friend. I visited him.
    The teacher slipped on the ice. He slipped on the ice.
    You should see the doctor. You should see her.


    She or he, his or her?
    In the past, the masculine pronoun was considered adequate for all situations where the gender of the person was not specified:
    Every time a New Zealander pays his taxes, he helps his country.

    Today, this usage is considered to be "sexist language". It can be avoided by using both pronouns:

    Every time a New Zealander pays his or her taxes, he or she helps his or her country.

    This construction can sound rather cumbersome. The problem can be avoided altogether by using the plural because this does not require any indication of gender:

    Every time New Zealanders pay their taxes, they help their country.

    Another option, used for centuries and now becoming acceptable again, is to use the plural they, their as the standard gender-neutral pronoun.

    Someone has left his or her car lights on.
    Someone has left their car lights on.
    If any student wants to go to the football match, they should leave their name at the office.

    This use of the plural pronoun has a very long history.

    Every person [...] now recovered their liberty. Goldsmith: History of England, 1771
    "If everybody minded their own business," the Duchess said, "the world would go round a good deal faster than it does." Lewis Carroll: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1865


    Another suggested solution has been the creation of a new gender-neutral pronoun, such as tey, co, E, ne, thon, mon, heesh, ho, hesh, et, hir, na, per, po, or hann.

    None of these has ever had widespread support. Because the pronoun is a member of a closed word class, it will not admit newcomers easily.

    Pronoun gender is not an issue in Mâori, where there is only one word, ia, for "he" or "she".
    Many other languages, including Chinese, are like Mâori in having a gender-neutral third-person-singular pronoun. In Chinese, the pronoun for both "he" and "she" is ta. This can present problems for Chinese students speaking English.

    He has just given birth to a daughter.



    In English, we have the single word "you" for both singular and plural.

    However, many languages have different words. In French, for example:

    Singular: tu Plural: vous


    Tu is familiar and used to address close friends and family, whereas vous is used not only as the plural but also as the singular in the more formal and polite usage.

    At the time of Shakespeare, English also had two different second-person pronouns. Singular: thou Plural: ye or you


    As with French vous, "you" was also the formal and more distant form for the singular. "Thou" was more intimate or was used by superior people when addressing those they considered inferior, such as servants. Understanding this distinction helps us to interpret the social relations and dimensions of power expressed in older texts that are otherwise obscure to us today.

    Thou dost belie him, Percy, thou dost belie him;
    He never did encounter with Glendower:
    I tell thee,
    He durst as well have met the devil alone
    As Owen Glendower for an enemy.
    Art thou not asham'd? But sirrah, henceforth
    Let me not hear you speak of Mortimer:
    Send me your prisoners with the speediest means [...]
    (William Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part 1, Act 1, scene iii)


    The King here is addressing Percy (also known as Hotspur) at first as an equal and friend by using the pronoun "thou". He then changes his tone, addresses him as "sirrah", which is more contemptuous than "Sir", and changes the pronoun to the "you" form when ordering him to send his prisoners; he is now speaking as a superior addressing a subordinate.


    Pronouns in other varieties of English
    In Ireland and in parts of England, it is common to hear "you" as the singular and "yous" as the plural. The plural "yous" is also commonly heard in New Zealand in vernacular English. It is used in the everyday speech of many New Zealand speakers. Some New Zealand speakers use "you" for the singular and "you guys" or something similar for the plural. It has been suggested that the plural "yous" will eventually become part of standard English, though no doubt this will be resisted.
    The uncertainty about how to spell "yous" (or "you's" or "youse") comes from the fact that this is primarily a spoken form, not a written form, so has not developed a conventional spelling.

    Six-year-old Conor was listening intently to an explanation of a song in te reo Mâori that differentiated between one, two, three, or more persons - tênâ koe, tênâ korua, tênâ koutou. When he was singing, he said "yous" for the translation of "tênâ korua" and "tênâ koutou" - "greetings to yous", eyeballing the teacher to make sure she understood. At the conclusion he said, "You'll have to fix your chart 'cause in English one person is 'you', but two or more has an 's' and you say 'yous'".

    Teacher in Mangere, Auckland



    Other Categories of Pronoun
    We have concentrated on the personal pronoun here. There are other categories of pronoun, which we give here for the sake of completeness.
    Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, their.
    Although yours is more modern, I still like mine best.
    Relative pronouns: who, whom, which, whose, that (see page 84).
    The man who came to fix the washing machine ...
    Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those.
    This is for you.
    Leave those on the table.
    Interrogative pronouns: who, whom, whose.
    Who is coming to dinner? Whose is the car outside?
    Reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
    I myself thought he was a fraud.
    She bought herself some dark glasses.
    Indefinite pronouns: anybody, anyone, anything, everything, everybody, nobody, no-one, nothing, somebody, someone, something.
    I want to eat something.
    Someone pinched my lunch.
    Notice that there is some overlap between pronouns and determiners. Pronouns: This is for you.
    Which is yours?

    Determiners: This car is for you.
    Which book is yours?

    The reason is that some closed-class words can occur either before nouns (as determiners) or on their own (as pronouns).

    BalasHapus