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Juwana Pati, Central Java, Indonesia
I am an English teacher in SMA Negeri 1 Pati. I am a father of two children Wanindyatami Firstidi Putri and Satriya Pinandhita Seconditya Putra. I am a husband of Triyanti. I live in Doropayung village Rt 7 RW. 3.I am a dreamer cause I believe if I can dream someday my dream will come true.

Kamis, 23 Desember 2010

If Clause

IF Clause
IF Clause Type 1
if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.
Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.
Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.
Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody's really keen on preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will also do something.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1. If Caroline and Sue the salad, Phil the house.
2. If Sue the onions for the salad, Caroline the mushrooms.
3. Jane the sitting room if Aaron and Tim the furniture.
4. If Bob up the kitchen, Anita the toilet.
5. Elaine the drinks if somebody her carry the bottles.
6. If Alan and Rebecca the food, Mary and Conor the sandwiches.
7. If Bob after the barbecue, Sue the guests in.
8. Frank the DJ if the others along their CDs.
9. Alan the drinks if Jane him some of her cocktail recipes.
10. If they all their best, the party great.

Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type I) by putting the verbs into the correct form.
1. If you (send) this letter now, she (receive) it tomorrow.
2. If I (do) this test, I (improve) my English.
3. If I (find) your ring, I (give) it back to you.
4. Peggy (go) shopping if she (have) time in the afternoon.
5. Simon (go) to London next week if he (get) a cheap flight.
6. If her boyfriend (phone / not) today, she (leave) him.
7. If they (study / not) harder, they (pass / not) the exam.
8. If it (rain) tomorrow, I (have to / not) water the plants.
9. You (be able/ not) to sleep if you (watch) this scary film.
10. Susan (can / move / not) into the new house if it (be / not) ready on time.


IF Clause Type 2
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.
Were instead of Was
In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.
Example: If I were you, I would not do this.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.
Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Janine is a daydreamer. She imagines what would happen if she won the lottery.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
1. If I the lottery, I a chance to hit the jackpot.
2. If I the jackpot, I rich.
3. If I rich, my life completely.
4. I a lonely island, if I a nice one.
5. If I a lonely island, I a huge house by the beach.
6. I all my friends if I a house by the beach.
7. I my friends up in my yacht if they to spend their holidays on my island.
8. We great parties if my friends to my island.
9. If we to go shopping in a big city, we a helicopter.
10. But if my friends' holidays over, I very lonely on my lonely island.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type II) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional I with would in the main clause.
1. If we (have) a yacht, we (sail) the seven seas.
2. If he (have) more time, he (learn) karate.
3. If they (tell) their father, he (be) very angry.
4. She (spend) a year in the USA if it (be) easier to get a green card.
5. If I (live) on a lonely island, I (run) around naked all day.
6. We (help) you if we (know) how.
7. My brother (buy) a sports car if he (have) the money.
8. If I (feel) better, I (go) to the cinema with you.
9. If you (go) by bike more often, you (be / not) so flabby.
10. She (not / talk) to you if she (be) mad at you.

IF Clause Type 3
if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.
Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.
I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 3
What a match – your favourite team has lost again! So after the game, the supporters discuss what could have been different.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type III.
1. If the midfielders the ball more exactly, our team more chances to attack.
2. If the forwards faster, they more goals.
3. Their motivation if they a goal during the first half.
4. The fullbacks one or the other goal if they their opponents.
5. If the goalie up, he the ball.
6. If the referee the foul, he a penalty kick to our team.
7. Our team in better form if they harder the weeks before.
8. The game better if the trainer a substitute in during the second half.
9. If it a home game, our team the match.
10. If our team the match, they up in the league.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 3
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type III) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional II with would in the main clause.
1. If you (study) for the test, you (pass) it.
2. If you (ask) me, I (help) you.
3. If we (go) to the cinema, we (see) my friend Jacob.
4. If you (speak) English, she (understand) .
5. If they (listen) to me, we (be) home earlier.
6. I (write) you a postcard if I (have) your address.
7. If I (not / break) my leg, I (take part) in the contest.
8. If it (not/ start) to rain, we (walk) to the museum.
9. We (swim) in the sea if there (not / be) so many sharks there.
10. If she (take) the bus, she (not / arrive) on time.
Exceptions for Conditional Sentences
So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it's possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.
Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.
Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.
Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Exercise on Conditional Sentences with Auxiliaries
Complete the conditional sentences (type I). Remember to use the auxiliary verbs.
1. If it doesn't rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.
2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize.
3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English.
4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you.
6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you (should / tell) him that you love him.
7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I (must / look) after my little sister.
8. He (must / be) a good drummer if he plays in a band.
9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you (should / turn) the volume down.
10. If you like that shirt, you (can / have) it.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Conditional Sentences Type I
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I according to the information in brackets.
1. If we (visit - fact) our grandparents, we always (go - fact) to the restaurant in their street.
2. If my sister (speak - action going on now) on the phone, I (call - future) you later on.
3. You (go / can) outside if you (do - completed action) your homework.
4. If we (get - future action) the loan, our house (build - future action / passive voice) this autumn.
5. I always (ask - fact) my mother if I (know / not - fact) what to do.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)

Conditional Sentences Type II
Study the following situations. In every sentence, the 'if' clause expresses a general situation in the present (Type II). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II).
1. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I'm afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
2. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I'm afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
3. I want to ring a friend now, but I don't know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
4. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don't know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
5. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don't think what she is planning is a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
6. A friend tells me what she did. I don't think what she did was a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
7. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I'm seeing her in town tonight.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight.
8. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night.
9. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
10. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Conditional Sentences Type III
Study the following situations. In every sentence, the 'if' clause expresses a situation in the past (Type III). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II).
1. It didn't rain yesterday. So I had to water the plants yesterday.
If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants.
2. It didn't rain yesterday. So I am watering the plants now.
If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants now.
3. I went to bed late last night. So I am still tired now.
If I (go) to bed earlier yesterday, I (feel / not) so tired now.
4. I went to bed late last Tuesday. So I was very tired the following day.
If I (go) to bed earlier that Tuesday, I (feel / not) that tired the following day.
5. After a night out, I want to drive home now. I haven't drunk any alcohol.
If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not) .
6. After a night out last weekend, I drove home. I hadn't drunk any alcohol.
If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not) .
7. We won the match last week. So when we came home, we looked really happy.
We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match.
8. We've just won a match. So we look really happy now.
We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match.
9. My daughter is blamed for having done something. She tells me now that she didn't do it. I believe her.
She (tell) me if she (do) it.
10. Last year, my daughter was blamed for having done something. She told me that she hadn't done it. I believed her.
She (tell) me if she (do) it.
Exercise “The Cat and the Mouse” – Part 1
Complete the conditional sentences (type I, II and III)
1. Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off. “Give me back my tail,” said the mouse. And the cat said, “Well, I (give) you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
2. The mouse, however, went to the cow. “The cat (give / only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.”
3. And the cow said, “Well, I would give you milk if you (get) me some hay. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
4. The mouse, however, went to the farmer. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) me some milk. And the cow (only / give) me milk if I get her some hay.”
5. And the farmer said, “Well, I would give you hay if you (bring) me some meat. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
6. The mouse, however, went to the butcher. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) some hay. And the farmer (only / give) me hay if I get him some meat.”
7. And the butcher said, “Well, I would give you meat if you (make) the baker bake me a bread. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”

English Test on Conditional Sentences Type 1, 2 and 3
Test your knowledge on Conditional Sentences. After submitting your answers, you will see how well you have done in the test.
Conditional Sentences Type I
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
• If you (go) out with your friends tonight, I (watch) the football match on TV.
• I (earn) a lot of money if I (get) that job.
• If she (hurry / not) , we (miss) the bus.
Conditional Sentences Type II
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
• If he (try) harder, he (reach) his goals.
• I (buy) these shoes if they (fit) .
• It (surprise / not) me if he (know / not) the answer.
Conditional Sentences Type III
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type III.
• If we (listen) to the radio, we (hear) the news.
• If you (switch) on the lights, you (fall / not) over the chair.
• She (come) to our party if she (be / not) on holiday.
Conditional Sentences Type I, II or III
Complete the Conditional Sentences with the correct form (Type I, II or III).
• If I stronger, I'd help you carry the piano.
• If we'd seen you, we .
• If we him tomorrow, we'll say hello.
• He would have repaired the car himself if he the tools.
• If you drop the vase, it .
• If I hadn't studied, I the exam.
• I wouldn't go to school by bus if I a driving licence.
• If she him every day, she'd be lovesick.
• I to London if I don't get a cheap flight.
• We'd be stupid if we him about our secret.

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